Humans are born with 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. Most women are 46XX and most men are 46XY. Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome 45X or 45Y sex monosomies and some with three or more sex chromosomes 47XXX, 47XYY or 47XXY, etc. In addition, some males are born 46XX due to the translocation of a tiny section of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome. Similarly some females are also born 46XY due to mutations in the Y chromosome.
When a Person Is Neither XX nor XY: A Q&A with Geneticist Eric Vilain - Scientific American
Part of the rationale for this change was to move away from associations with gender, and to increase clarity by grounding the classification system in genetics. While the medical community has largely accepted the move, some individuals from intersex activist communities have condemned it. Alternative social and historical definitions of intersex — such as those proposed by the intersex activists — have the potential to do more justice to the lived experience of those affected by such classifications and their consequences. The classification of bodily variations is a complex, messy process. Classifications of variations of sex characteristics, or intersex traits, have changed significantly throughout history. In general, intersex refers to the state of being born with biological sex characteristics that vary from what is typically thought of as exclusively male or female. Can individuals affected by these diagnoses or classifications expect such improvements through this DSD framework and the promise of a clear genetics of intersex to come?
Gender and Genetics
Intersex people are individuals born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes , gonads , sex hormones or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights , "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies". Intersex people were previously referred to as hermaphrodites or "congenital eunuchs ". It was the first attempt at creating a taxonomic classification system of intersex conditions. Intersex people were categorized as either having true hermaphroditism , female pseudohermaphroditism , or male pseudohermaphroditism.
Hermaphroditism , the condition of having both male and female reproductive organs. Hermaphroditic plants —most flowering plants, or angiosperms —are called monoecious, or bisexual. Hermaphroditic animals—mostly invertebrates such as worms , bryozoans moss animals , trematodes flukes , snails , slugs , and barnacles —are usually parasitic, slow-moving, or permanently attached to another animal or plant. In humans, conditions that involve discrepancies between external genitalia and internal reproductive organs are described by the term intersex.